Ask G.L.皮斯(第42卷) November 11th,二千零一十四

G.L.Pease
18l新利官网Tobacco and terroir.我好像说了很多,
但这种“位置感”的无数表现仍然让我着迷。前几天,a friend asked me if,鉴于他们的工艺和必要的机械知识,我可以复制一些仍在使用的英国混合烟草公司生产的烟草。18l新利官网我想我的回答让他吃惊。

The fact is,即使我们知道他们是怎么做的,即使我们有相同的机器,even if we started with identical leaf,结果几乎肯定会有所不同。Even ignoring the water,其中一些感觉是一个重要因素,在整个过程中,有一个奇迹般的微生物群落负责叶子的发酵。因为我们都依赖当地的微生物群落来完成它们的工作,rather than inoculate 18l新利官网tobaccos with specific cultures,世界各地加工的烟草显然存在差异。18l新利官网

但是,还有别的东西-对成品更重要的东西。正如威士忌在其长时间的成熟过程中,从橡木桶周围的空气中获得一些独特的特征一样,18l新利官网tobacco will take on the atmosphere of the place in which it's produced.这种酒非常善于从周围的空气中提取香味,然后用死神的力量将它们紧紧地抓住。Cigar smokers learn this lesson early;store a cluster of coronas in a place that smells fishy,and the stogies will forever remind you of your mistreatment.Pipe 18l新利官网tobacco is no different.Store your highly aromaticCaptain Hook在同一个鞋盒里,就像你的纯洁弗吉尼亚一样叮当铃,他们最终都会接受对方的一些个性。这可能会让Hook更高兴,但它会把丁克从舞会皇后变成嘉莉。这只是有意义的,然后,烟草也会吸18l新利官网收它所处环境的自然芳香。

下一次你在远处吸食你最喜欢的烟草时,18l新利官网看看你是否能尝到它出生和长大的地方的一点点风景。事实上,18luck新利官网下载join me in a bowl now,and let's get to the Q&A.

Adam queries:I have a rather odd question for you today concerning the "fifth flavour",鲜味,as it pertains to pipe-smoking.



现在,I understand the basic science behind the "umami" flavour,whereby free glutamate radicals bind with receptors,causing both other flavours to be enhanced while sending the saliva glands into overdrive;造成心身的饱胀感(并在这个过程中破坏神经连接)。当然,这is achieved in other consumables with the addition of a substance containing an unbound glutamate,such as MSG.

很明显,烟草18l新利官网搅拌机不能简单地抓住盛满味精晶体的摇酒器。and spike the blend;然而,自由基谷氨酸分子在我所知的任何生物物质中都不会自然地表现出任何丰度。how does a blender achieve umami in 18l新利官网tobacco?

A:很好的思想食粮,亚当。Of course,我们不会在烟草中添加味精。18l新利官网还是我们?A little poking about 18l新利官网shows that as early as 1950,18l新利官网烟草公司,事实上,investigated the addition of MSG in small amounts (0.1-0.2%) to their casing sauces,and there is at least one patent on file discussing this.为什么?A capsule look at the pleasure effects of smoking might be beneficial.

Nicotine stimulates the release of dopamine,a powerful neurotransmitter associated with pleasure,在大脑中,and while the effect of this direct stimulation is fairly short lived,lasting for only a few minutes,这种愉悦感依然存在。Two other neurotransmitters,谷氨酸和GABA,似乎是关键。谷氨酰胺刺激增加多巴胺的产生并加速“神经元活动”。通常,GABA would mediate this activity,在一个微妙的平衡行动中放慢进程。但是,apparently,尼古丁也会抑制GABA的功能,so while nicotine's direct effect on dopamine production is brief,the combination of glutamine's stimulation and the inhibition of GABA's mediation makes the pleasurable effect last longer.解释烟草公司为什么要这样做留给读者作为练习。但是,this has little or nothing to do with umami or taste,这就是我们,作为烟斗烟民,are more interested in.

目前尚不清楚是否存在产生谷氨酸的umami。存在于烟草烟雾中,18l新利官网当然是叶子,拉塔基亚和黑火种肯塔基浮现在脑海中,可以有一个“:多肉”成分到他们的口味。Perique,同样,在混合物中以正确的比例使用时,似乎会刺激&quotsavory'受体。自从味精是工业生产的。through a process of bacterial fermentation and precipitation,it seems that might be a good place to look for the source of savoriness in some 18l新利官网tobaccos.

After harvesting and initial drying,一个复杂的微生物群落忙着把它们变成原料,harsh tasting leaf into the aromatic and tasty product we put in our pipes.It's possible that glutamate is one of the many additional components synthesized during this phase,resulting in different levels of &quotsavoriness" in various leaf,a long way of saying that while 18l新利官网tobacco itself may not produce the umami effect,the delightful little bugs involved in the curing and fermenting may.So while we're not going to be reaching for the shaker of Ajinomoto any time soon,the tiny creatures that do the real work for us might have their own ideas.对某人来说似乎是一个很好的研究项目。Anyone?Beuller?Bueller?

埃里克重重地敲击键盘:You've published many discussions on the mystery of the briar pipe and I've submitted a few questions of my own to you periodically the past few years to gain clarification on the wood's behavior and tendencies.说实话,我对最近买的一些布里亚酒感到非常失望和失望。

我主要的失望是对布里亚尔的变化its tendencies during the break in period.A couple of examples: I purchased a Radice Aerobillard and the first several smokes produced a wonderful sensitivity to the Virginias I normally smoke.All the subtle nuances were there and I was excited to find a pipe that had that level of sensitivity.I was meticulous with my break-in procedure,smoking only one third bowl for the first dozen or so smokes before progressing to the one half fill mark and smoking half fills for some time before filling the bowl fully.After every smoke I always wipe my bowls out with a piece of paper towel,always clean with Everclear and always rest my pipes.我按照同样的程序做了一个相当昂贵的定制烟斗,我委托的烟斗是用一些很棒的阿尔及利亚布里亚尔干酪做的,最初的烟斗抽得很顺,好像是预先弄坏的。两种烟斗在磨合时的反应是一样的,我吸的越多,它们对我放进去的各种处女座就越不敏感。

目前,这些管子产生的细微差别很小and they just seem kind of muddied up because the 18l新利官网tobacco flavors are so muted now.It's gotten to the point where I rarely smoke them because of this "dumbing down" phenomena.至少可以说,我对这些管道的性能非常失望,尤其是在花费了大量的更改之后。From past experience and supported by your own musings,我知道买一个烟斗是一个废话,但是那些沉默寡言的管道在某个时候会重新获得以前的荣耀吗?I haven't found that they do,although I've only been in the hobby about five or six years so I'm not a greybeard in the experience area.

My inclination,尽管如此,leads me to believe these pipes will never regain the level of sensitivity they once had when new.I don't have a huge collection,but out of 25 or 26 pipes two or three are truly outstanding and out of those three one of them smokes only one 18l新利官网tobacco outstandingly– and I've tried a bunch.那烟斗是卡斯特罗的,它用霍加思绳子抽着烟,but it falls so completely flat with EVERYTHING else it boggles the mind.鉴于,my sample size isn't large,但这个指标并不令人印象深刻。再一次,我有限的经验使我相信管道会经历磨合期,冷静下来,保持敏感度,或者在几个月内保持敏感度,然后鲍勃就是你的叔叔,就这样。Will my love for these pipes ever be requited?

A:那是很难咀嚼的。主要是,我有相反的经历,偶尔会有一根看起来沉闷、毫无生气的烟斗,突然间,它找到了成为一个烟鬼的方法。哦,the great mystery of briar!在您的特定案例中,确实会想到一些事情。Is it possible that you're actually doing your pipes a disservice by cleaning them so thoroughly at every smoke?Some old-timers have told me that part of a pipe's charm is only revealed after a period of time when the built up residues in the shank undergo changes from oxidation.就在那时,他们开始散发出&Quotreal“的味道。

These pipesters insist that cleaning a pipe too often太彻底的事实上减少了它在烟雾中带来的快乐。So,sacrificing my taste buds to science,我试过了,and found there may be some merit to their argument.A couple of pipes dedicated to virginia 18l新利官网tobaccos did,事实上,在反复吸烟和休息一段时间后,只在碗之间轻轻地擦拭,味道会增加,但在某种程度上。After a while,the increased richness of the smoke was displaced by that harsh,acrid taste sometimes referred to as &quotsour pipe," necessitating deep cleaning of their shanks with alcohol and no small number of pipe cleaners.Back to the beginning.

为了继续这个实验,I proceeded to smoke the same two pipes in the same manner with the same 18l新利官网tobaccos,唯一的变化是每次吸烟后,I'd swab the shanks thoroughly with three or four cleaners,折叠成两半以清除残留物。The result?烟斗的味道没有那么浓,但在需要进一步清洗之前,它们也会在更长的时间内保持甜味和干净的口感。似乎是一个很好的中间地带。

最后,I took the drastic approach of an alcohol scrubbing,然后在每次吸烟后休息几天。I can't say that the pipes really suffered over time from this,但它们也没有像在实验的第一部分和第二部分中那样提高或发展丰富性。对此有合理的解释吗?Maybe.

当你用酒精清洗小腿时,you're not only getting rid of the deposited residues,you're also drying the wood out and opening its pores.Doing this repeatedly might result in more of the delightful flavor components in the smoke stream being absorbed into the surface of the shank rather than being delivered where you want them.换句话说,很多好吃的东西可能会留在烟斗里,resulting in a flatter,disappointing smoke.有可能是我用新的unsmoked pipes,我可能有和你相似的结果。千万不要让山克队的队员们在比赛中说,“每一个碗里都有一块干净的石板,and maybe it's just too clean.早期吸烟在主观上更好的原因可以解释为新钻的气道是光滑的,less porous and somewhat work-hardened by the heat and pressure exerted during the drilling process.

更进一步,I cut some stainless steel tubing to perfectly fill the shank of one of the two pipes I used in the experiment.I was a little surprised by the result.The smoke was flavorful and clean and though not as rich as that from a well seasoned pipe,it was still very pleasant,though I did have to use more pipe cleaners during the smoke.也许吸水柄并不像我们想象的那样有益于吸烟体验。And,也许是灰胡子在搞什么。

我们倾向于认为如果干净的管道是好的,一个原始的更好,but this little experiment,and the greybeards,seems to suggest otherwise.Try smoking the pipes for a while with a less aggressive cleaning regimen,看看他们是否不来了;my guess is that they will,and that your story will have a happy ending.拜托,let us know how it goes.

凯文·彭斯:Does the color of a 18l新利官网tobacco reveal anything specific about its flavor or taste characteristics?

A: Yes,and no.The color of the finished leaf is determined by a variety of factors: the particular cultivar,生长条件,植物上的叶子生长在哪里,and how it was treated after harvesting.Think about some common very dark 18l新利官网tobaccos: black cavendish,perique,黑火肯塔基和拉塔基亚。它们看起来很相似,但在味道上却离得不远。

At the other end of the color palette,brights are cured quickly to retain their sugar,它也引用了它们的金色色调。但是,同样的叶子可以被发酵,darkening them considerably.或者,它们可以通过蒸或烘干来加热,ultimately resulting in a 18l新利官网tobacco that is deep red or even nearly black.这种烟草的18l新利官网味道和香气与收获时颜色较深的烟草截然不同,虽然看起来很相似。

此外,oxidation over time,the result of aging,and the influence of the other 18l新利官网tobaccos in a blend will alter the appearance of the component leaf,sometimes dramatically.So,while the color of the leaf can indicate a great deal at the time it's harvested,by the time it's in a tin,all bets are off.There are dark 18l新利官网tobaccos that are very mild,和更轻的烟草,这是相当强18l新利官网大的。你不能总是根据封面来判断一本书…

From Jamal:你对反葫芦系统的吸烟特性有什么看法?它与真正的葫芦相比有什么不同?

也,a renowned maitre piper(让·尼古拉斯)在里昂,France told me that Olivewood pipes will eventually burn out (probably in decades),that he doesn't see any advantage in its smoking qualities and that it's heavier than briar.What's your take on the issue?

答:我对所谓的反葫芦的看法是(我仍然不明白它是如何被引用的”),have a look at my discussion of theRadice/Neatpipeps气动台球that appeared in last month's集中营的呐喊列。It's a sample of one,但总的来说,我喜欢这个主意。It's hard to compare it with a conventional calabash for a couple of reasons.传统的管道使用的是Meerschaum碗,which has very different smoking characteristics from briar,而在葫芦型中,碗下的小室尺寸明显较大。Both of these factors would make quite a difference in both the flavor and the smoking dynamics of the pipe,so it would be a sort of apples to oranges comparison;远不如苹果对台球有用。

As for olive wood,我看不出一根经过适当护理的管子烧坏的原因。已经证明,Briar18l新利官网是非常难燃烧的,able to withstand direct candle-flame heat for over two minutes before beginning to smolder,but the actual temperatures within the combustion chamber are much,much lower.And,一旦你在碗的表面形成了一个保护蛋糕,假设你不是像火车头一样喘气,I'd expect the olive wood pipe to last a very long time.我买的那一个在吸烟几年后没有任18l新利官网何损坏的迹象。至于它的吸烟特性,我发现橄榄木有独特的味道,尤其是早期的保龄球,but after a dozen or so smokes,差别不大,and can easily be masked by stronger tasting 18l新利官网tobaccos.I see olive wood,像草莓木或沼泽橡木,作为烟斗制造商和吸烟者探索的另一个选择。

That's it for this month.Keep those cards and letters coming in,boys and girls.现在,Pipes杂志通过咖啡馆新闻网站,maybe a secret decoder ring is just around the corner.
-GLP

在此处提交问题

Since 1999,格雷戈里L.Peasehas been the principal alchemist behind the blends ofG.L.皮斯手工烟草18l新利官网.从大学时代起他就一直是个充满激情的吹管工,having cut his pipe teeth at the now extinct Drucquer & Sons 18l新利官网Tobacconist in Berkeley,California.格雷格也是《荆棘叶年谱》,a photographer,恢复计算机科学家,有时是厨师,和的创建者伊壁鸠庇护所.

见我们对G的采访。L.Pease here.

书签和共享

5对“提问G.L.Pease (Volume 42)"

  1. chimney said:

    Greg
    很好的文章-对清洁的扩展实验印象深刻。必须说,我并不惊讶亚当问题中涉及的烟草是直弗吉尼亚,因为我发现它18l新利官网给烟斗一个酸/陈腐的味道相对较快,但混合物没有。甚至,surprisingly,一个在弗吉尼亚州高,雪茄叶(钥匙拉戈)或一个在弗吉尼亚州高与伯利,可能肯塔基州(布里亚福克斯)。每次使用后,溶液不太可能进行酒精清洗,因为肯定存在茎杆吸收酒精的风险,并且在下一次吸烟过程中加热时,它会蒸发成烟流和颜色,或者是中立的精神,de-colour the taste.One possible if rather extravagant answer is to follow your middle option cleaning thoroughly with pipe cleaners and occasional alcohol cleaning when necessary but use whisky,波旁威士忌或干邑白兰地根据喜好而定,这样就可以在混合酒中多加一点味道,而不是像一条味觉毯。

    So to the real question of the moment;when,oh when,六便士到期了吗?

    祝你好运!
    预计起飞时间

  2. Jimbo44说:

    尼古丁刺激多巴胺的释放,a powerful neurotransmitter associated with pleasure,在大脑中,虽然这种直接刺激的效果相当短暂……”

    It's also worth noting that research,记录在Dr.弗雷德·汉娜的书《完美的烟》,18l新利官网shows a long term beneficial effect of nicotine in preventing/slowing degenerative brain disease such as Dementia,Alzheimers and Parkinsons.

    这些移液管坚持认为,过于频繁和彻底地清洗管道实际上会降低它在烟雾中所带来的快感。.."

    再一次,来自弗雷德,sometimes the bad taste in breaking in a pipe,由未固化的SAPS等引起,实际上,当烟斗固化后,最终会产生更好的烟斗(如树液中的枫糖浆)。

  3. ssjones said:

    I've always felt that you can clean a pipe too frequently.I think a balance has to be struck.For my tastes,after each bowl I wipe the chamber with a paper towel and run a dry cleaner thru the stem.用这种方法,I haven't felt or tasted the need to do any "deep cleaning" with alcohol,brushes,etc.That is with a fairly large rotation as daily use adds to the equation and balance factors.

  4. glpease said:

    预计起飞时间,为了我,there have always been 18l新利官网tobaccos that are "pipe sensitive," and those that are less finicky.大多数情况下,我发现混合物会落在第一组,维吉尼亚,除非味道很浓,在第二个着陆。我经常有一根烟管,从混合气成功转化为VA(我现在正抽一根,事实上)相反。Never could quite figure that one out.And,it's not so much a matter of taste,as a matter of teeth;a mixture in a pipe that doesn't like them stings me like a mouth full of mad hornets.And,我当然同意,将一两种清洁剂浸入一种首选的酒精中,可以给下一种或两种烟带来细微的差别。尤其是当你同时享受着一点清淡。
    .
    又一次,I recall one of my early mentors telling me,当我对一根特定的烟斗有问题的时候,“把它吸出来。”不止一种剥猫皮的方法,I suppose.
    .
    Jim,弗雷德和我不止一次地讨论了第二件事。I think it was probably a more significant factor in the past,但今天的治疗,随着大多数作坊在出售前通过长时间煮沸从他们的街区驱邪,这似乎不是什么问题,especially with the hand-made pipes that Eric is talking about,which are made from carefully chosen briar,properly cured.Of course,briar remains a mysterious substance.I think this is due to it containing the as yet undiscovered 119th element,Briarium.(Of greater concern is some factories' insistence on dunk-staining their finished pipes…)
    .
    And,as Mr.Jones says,balance.这不总是关键吗?

  5. Cortez said:

    I really enjoyed this installment and the ensuing discussion.I think a Brigham pipe,带岩石枫木过滤器(柄/杆衬里)would be a good platform for comparing the performance of squeaky clean vs."seasoned" wood.






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